Thursday, December 30, 2010


*Happiness......Deep down within *Serenity..........With each sunrise

*Success..........In each facet of your life *Friends..........Close and caring

*Love..............That never ends

*Knowledge..........Of the grace and love of GOD ALMIGHTY

*Special memories.........Of all the yesterday*A bright today..........With much to be thankful for

*A path..........That leads to beautiful tomorrow *Dreams.........That do their best to come true

And appreciation Of all the wonderful things about you!

Choudary anil dutta & familY

(Member, Managing committee, gms-delhi),(senior vice-president, mohyal sabha, amritsar),President- Amritsar Development Committee (NGO)



Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Wishing You A Very Happy New Year

Clean Yourself For 2011

As the Moon begins to wane and the year draws to a close, take time today to cleanse all that no longer serves you in the coming year. Get a pad of paper and a pen and reminisce on all of the difficult moments of the year. How did these experiences serve you? What gifts did they grant you? What are you ready to release? In your ritual space, meditate on the lessons these experiences have taught you. Speak them. Cry if you need to. There is no wrong way to release. When ready, burn the paper in a fireproof dish and say:
I release the cords that bind
What does not serve is far behind
I cleanse my body, mind, and soul
Through the fire, I am whole.

Collect the ashes and release in the wind or bury in the earth.

Monday, December 27, 2010

How Was Banking System Started

The word "Bank" is derived from the Italian Word "Banco". which means a 'Bench'. in the mid century the Italian People used to make there business transactions sitting on the benches itself. The Word 'Benco' underwent many changes and became "Bank". now all the Countries in the world have their own banking systems
But, do you know how did the banking systems started.

In the beginning giving money on credit and banking system was started by the 'Jews'. but later on it went into the hands of Jewelers. The businessmen used to keep their spare money in safe custody of the jewelers. these jewelers used issue a receipt like a bank note to the depositor. so much so that these jewelers used to lend money on interest to other people. so with that the jeweler had an extra income. A part of this interest was shared with the depositor.this was the beginning of the saving bank or the early banking system.
The traders/businessmen used to write letter to the jewelers to give money to other traders. these letters were used as the modern cheques.
The modern Banking System started in the beginning of year 1587 in the city of Venice, Italy and in the same year 'Banco de Rialto' was established.The people used to deposit money in this bank and could withdraw at the time when required. In year 1619 the management of the bank was taken over by 'Banco de Genero'. Apart from Money, people could also deposit gold and silver, with the bank, for which banks used to issue receipts also. These receipts were used as the currency notes.
The first American bank was established in 1782 in the city of Philadelphia. the first bank started in 1825 in England. The first Indian bank in India started in 1804. The name of the first Bank of India was "the Presidency bank of Bombay". But the first indigenous Indian Bank was "Punjab National Bank" established in 1894. The Government of India established Reserve Bank Of India in 1935. The Reserve Bank of India used to issue currency notes and coins. Today, a number of banks are established in the world.
In the early times the banks only did two jobs- one to deposit money and second to lend money on interest, but nowadays banks do other jobs also- like issue of credit cards, the give foreign currency to foreigners, Deal in share, Mutual funds, etc. Banks also gives facilities of Lockers to its customers, in which we could keep our valuables safely.
ANIL DUTTA (Member, Managing Committee-GMS Delhi) (Senior Vice-President- Mohyal Sabha, Amritsar)
91-8146558833, 9878391830 Email:

Saturday, December 25, 2010

मोहयाल सभा फरीदाबाद 13 वाँ मोहयाल मिलन:5 दिसंबर 2010

मोहयाल सभा फरीदाबाद की ओर से डॉ अशोक लव और उनकी पत्नी श्रीमती नरेशबाला लव ( स्मृति चिह्न लिए ) को सम्मानित किया गया। साथ में -जनरल मोहयाल सभा के प्रेजिडेंट रायजादा बी डी बाली , मोहयाल सभा फरीदाबाद के प्रेजिडेंट रमेश दत्ता ओर श्रीमती सुमन दत्ता. संबोधित करते हुए डॉ अशोक लव

सांस्कृतिक कार्यक्रम के चित्र

मोहयाल ध्वज फहराते हुए रायजादा बी डी बाली
दीप प्रज्वलित करते हुए श्री रमेश दत्ता ,साथ में पी के दत्ता, सुरजीत मेहता, जी एल दत्ता जोश, रायजादा बी डी बाली,के एस बाली,ओ पी मोहन.

Friday, December 24, 2010

Child Porn and Pope /Angel Mystic

December 23, 2010
Victims of clerical sex abuse have reacted furiously to Pope Benedict's Pope’s child porn 'normal' claim sparks outrage among victims
Victims of clerical sex abuse have reacted furiously to Pope Benedict's claim yesterday that paedophilia wasn't considered an “absolute evil” as recently as the 1970s.

In his traditional Christmas address yesterday to cardinals and officials working in Rome, Pope Benedict XVI also claimed that child pornography was increasingly considered “normal” by society.“In the 1970s, paedophilia was theorised as something fully in conformity with man and even with children,” the Pope said.
“It was maintained — even within the realm of Catholic theology — that there is no such thing as evil in itself or good in itself. There is only a ‘better than' and a ‘worse than'. Nothing is good or bad in itself.” The Pope said abuse revelations in 2010 reached “an unimaginable dimension” which brought “humiliation” on the Church.
Asking how abuse exploded within the Church, the Pontiff called on senior clerics “to repair as much as possible the injustices that occurred” and to help victims heal through a better presentation of the Christian message.

“We cannot remain silent about the context of these times in which these events have come to light,” he said, citing the growth of child pornography “that seems in some way to be considered more and more normal by society” he said.
But outraged Dublin victim Andrew Madden last night insisted that child abuse was not considered normal in the company he kept.
Mr Madden accused the Pope of not knowing that child pornography was the viewing of images of children being sexually abused, and should be named as such.
He said: “That is not normal. I don't know what company the Pope has been keeping for the past 50 years.”
Pope Benedict also said sex tourism in the Third World was “threatening an entire generation”.
Angry abuse victims in America last night said that while some Church officials have blamed the liberalism of the 1960s for the Church's sex abuse scandals and cover-up catastrophes, Pope Benedict had come up with a new theory of blaming the 1970s.

“Catholics should be embarrassed to hear their Pope talk again and again about abuse while doing little or nothing to stop it and to mischaracterise this heinous crisis,” said Barbara Blaine, the head of SNAP, the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests,

“It is fundamentally disturbing to watch a brilliant man so conveniently misdiagnose a horrific scandal,” she added.

“The Pope insists on talking about a vague ‘broader context' he can't control, while ignoring the clear ‘broader context' he can influence — the long-standing and unhealthy culture of a rigid, secretive, all-male Church hierarchy fixated on self-preservation at all costs. This is the ‘context’ that matters.”

The latest controversy comes as the German magazine Der Spiegel continues to investigate the Pope's role in allowing a known paedophile priest to work with children in the early 1980s.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Live life fully जीवन जीने के लिए

An enchanting story about violinist Fritz Kreisler tells how he once
came across a beautiful instrument he wanted to acquire. When he
finally raised the money for the violin, he returned to buy it and
learned that it had already been sold to a collector.

He went to the new owner's home in order to try to persuade him to
sell the violin. But the collector said it was one of his prized
possessions and he could not let it go. The disappointed Kreisler
turned to leave, but then asked a favor. "May I play the instrument
once more before it is consigned to silence?"

Permission was granted and the great musician began to play. The
violin sang out a quality of music so beautiful that the collector
himself could only listen in wonderment. "I have no right to keep that
to myself," he said after the musician finished. "The violin is yours,
Mr. Kreisler. Take it into world, and let people hear it."

William Arthur Ward said, "If you believe in prayer, pray; if you
believe in serving, serve; if you believe in giving, give." For you
and I are exquisite violins -- our music is meant to be heard.

I want to live my life that way -- to take it into the world and live
it fully. I'd rather burn out than rust out. I'd rather be used up
than die not having done whatever I could...wherever I would.

I'm not talking about wearing ourselves out on over-activity.
Happiness is never found in excessive busyness. But it is found in
investing our lives in others. Saying YES when asked for a hand.
Volunteering some time for a worthwhile organization. Spending an hour
with a lonely relative.

In the end, I know that my happiness will not have been
about by my ability or my inability. It will have been about my
availability. My life is meant to be lived.

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

Sunitha Krishnan fights sex slavery | Video on

Sunitha Krishnan fights sex slavery | Video on

Land of Mohyals :North West Frontier Province(Pakistan)

कोहाट, मियाँवाली , बिलोचिस्तान , डेराइस्माईल खान , पेशावर आदि इन क्षेत्रों में मोहयाल ब्राहमण शासक थे।विभाजन के पश्चात् यहाँ के मोहयाल तथा अन्य जातियों के लोग फरीदाबाद ( हरियाणा )में बस गए हैं।

प्रतिभाशाली मोहयाल - 2010 सम्मानित विद्यार्थी फ़ोटो

Sunday, December 12, 2010

What Happened When Neil Armstrong Stepped On Moon

Washington, Dec 10 (ANI): Wonder what really happened when NEil Armastrong first stepped on the moon? Well, here's what he wrote to NPR blogger Robert Krulwich that may quench your curiosity too.

In an article he wrote for 'Krulwich Wonders,' Krulwich pondered why the 1969 Apollo 11 astronauts didn't venture more than 90 yards from the Lunar Module.

And interestingly, NASA astronaut Armstrong responded to Krulwich's blog by sending him a long email.

In the message, Armstrong gave a wonderfully vivid explanation as to what it was like on the lunar surface and why they were limited by what they could do.

"It is true that we were cautious in our planning. There were many uncertainties about how well our Lunar module systems and our Pressure suit and backpack would match the engineering predictions in the hostile lunar environment," Discovery News quoted Armstrong as writing in the e-mail.

To ensure the Apollo astronauts stayed cool Armstrong said, "We were operating in a near perfect vacuum with the temperature well above 200 degrees Fahrenheit"-NASA had designed a water-cooling system that pumped water around the astronauts' bodies. But this was the first time it was being used, so there were uncertainties about its performance."

"To verify the cooling system's performance after a lunar walk, the astronauts got back into the re-pressurized lunar module and "were able to drain and measure the remaining water in the backpacks to confirm the predicted," he pointed out.

To minimize any unforeseen incidents, the pair had a strict mission plan, but that didn't mean Armstrong didn't stray just a little. He wrote, "Preflight planners wanted us to stay in TV range so that they could learn from our results how they could best plan for future missions. I candidly admit that I knowingly and deliberately left the planned working area out of TV coverage to examine and photograph the interior crater walls for possible bedrock exposure or other useful information. I felt the potential gain was worth the risk.

Friday, December 10, 2010

Sahiwal: Home Land of Mohyals Vaid etc./ Mahesh Kant

Sahiwal is a city in Punjab,Pakistan. Sahiwal under Sargodha distt was the home land of Mohyals brahmans , who migrated to India after partitionin 1947. Dutta,Bali,Chhibber,Bhimwal,Vaid, Lauand Mohan Mohyals were living here. Shri Aas Karan Vaid was a sanskrit scholar who was teaching there. His grand sons are settled in New Delhi.
This city was a small village on the Karachi-Lahore railway line in 1865 when it was named Montgomery after Sir Robert Montgomery, then Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab. It took its current name in 1966 after Sahi clan of Kharal Rajputs who were the actual inhabitants of this area.It is the administrative centre of Sahiwal District and Sahiwal Division.The districts of Okara and Pakpattan are under Sahiwal division. Sahiwal lies approximately 180 km from the major city of Lahore. And it is the biggest city between Lahore and Multan. The population is 207,388 (1998 Pakistan Census). Sahiwal District is included in the former Multan Division and lies between 30-39 north latitude and 73-06 longitude. The city lies in the densely populated region between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers. Irrigation in the region is provided by the Bari Doab Canal system. The principal crops are wheat, cotton, tobacco, legumes, potato and oilseeds. Cotton goods and lacquered woodwork are manufactured. About 18 miles Southwest of Sahiwal is Harappa, an ancient city of the world, oldest urban center of Harappan or Indus civilization in South Asia. About 28 miles (45 km) west of Sahiwal, at Kamalia, is the site of a Malli city captured by Alexander the Great in 325 bc. Pop. (1998) city, 207,388.
Porus was a Mohyal brahaman .He was Vaid. He was the king of this region and was a great warrior.He forced Alexander to return back to his country.
The people of Sahiwal are known as Sahiwalians. This city got its name from the first inhibitants of this city the Sahis of kharal / Jatt origin. Sahis had their first settlement at the place called Yaadgar-e-Sahiwal When the development was started under British rule in this area in 1865, Sahis moved to Chak No.60-61/G.D. Rai Haji Ali Sher Sahi is a prominent figure amongst the Sahis in this region.
Cricket is the most popular sports in Sahiwal. Sahiwal produced many cricketers like Mushtaq Ahmed, Waqar Younis, Muhammad Zahid, Mustafa Kamal, Manzoor Ilahi, Zahoor Ilahi and Saleem Ilahi. Football is also fairly popular.


Sahiwal's industries include cotton ginning and pressing, tanning, textile (City cloth palace, City Fashion Center), textile spinning, weaving, leather products, garments, pharmaceuticals, flour mills, food processing, oil mills, cold storage, potato, tobacco, vegetable ghee/cooking oil, biscuits, chip board, confectionery, and woollen textile spinning and weaving. The Sahiwal breed of cattle, recognised as productive among Zebu dairy breeds, originated here; they are now found throughout the tropics. The main crops of the Sahiwal district are wheat, cotton, sugarcane, maize and rice. Main fruits are citrus, mangoes and guava. Sahiwal is a green and fertile town with 11,522 acres (46.63 km2) under naturally grown forests. KSC is an electrical industry in Sahiwal, producing water heaters, water coolers, air coolers, fans and washing machines.


Sahiwal has several educational institutes of quality. But the literacy rate is still very low: about 30% overall and 51% in the city of Sahiwal. The Divisional Public School (DPS) and St. Mary's Convent High School are a schools of the city. Other notable schools are Government High School, Comprehensive High School, Government Pilot Higher Secondary School and Junior Model High School. Government Immamia College, Government Postgraduate College (GPGC) and Government College for Men and Women.and it has also a biggest istitute of technology( of technolgy).

Medical & Dental College and COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) are also working.Virtual University has opened a campus in Sahiwal, and offers distance learning programmes. It is situated near the Government College Sahiwal. Baha-u-Deen Zikria University (BZU) sub-campus Sahiwal has been successfully providing several under-graduate and graduate programmes since 2005.

The private sector is playing a major role in education system. schools in this regard are:

The Educators 4(Campuses), Acute Business College ACCA and CAT, The Allied School, The Knowledge School, The Beaconhouse School System, Bloom Field Hall, The City School Pre-Forces Cadet School. Dare-Aqram Model School Bhagwan Public School Muhammadan Law College Sahiwal Multan Law College Sahiwal The Limit College The Command College Quaid e Azam Polytechnic Institute Quaid e Azam Technology College.

Monday, December 6, 2010

कर्बला :जहाँ मोहयालों ने कुर्बानी दी

Rihab Dutt faught for Imam Husain and sacrificed his seven sons. A great sacrifice of Mohyals.

Every society where the followers of Imam Husayn live, has had a profound cultural impact due to the very nature of Imam Husayn's story.
In Iraq, in spite of the oppressive regime, the followers of the Imam commemorate his martyrdom every year with full demonstration in public.
In Iran, every year during Muharram the tragedy of Karbala is relived through acts known as T'aziyah.
The society in India has had the most dramatic impact due to the commemoration of Imam Husayn's sacrifice every year. The majority of the population in India is non-Muslim. It is curious to see those non-Muslims participating in the many colorful ceremonies during the month of Muharram. Also, it has affected the rich and the poor alike.
The most famous of them all was the Rajah of Gwalior, a state in central India. The Rajah used to go barefoot with the procession every year on the day of Ashoora, holding a replica of Imam Husayn's mausoleum.
The following new-item was published recently on the INTERNET:
By Sanjay Sharma in Bhopal Hindu families have been taking out the Tazia procession on Muharram for more than 120 years in some districts of Madhya Pradesh. The ritual began in 1882 when the Raikwar family of the Vidisha town began preparing and taking out Tazias on the ninth day of Moharram. Since then, the Raikwar's Tazia leads the procession of mourners on Muharram, and moves ahead of the long line of replicas of Hussain's tomb and flags along the streets. Like several Muslim families across the globe, the Raikwar family members, too, set aside their daily chores to grieve for the grandson of Prophet Mohammad, Hussain, and his 70 companions who were brutally killed on the banks of the river Euphrates in Karbala (Iraq) in AD 680. "Hussain is everybody's hero, the embodiment of virtues of piety, courage and self-sacrifice. He did not seek power. "He represented the authentic voice of Islam and, for that reason, boldly challenged the un-Islamic practices of the Umayyad ruler, Yezid," a member of the Raikwar family said. They also march, as they do year after year, through the lanes and by-lanes in fervent lamentation chanting, "Ya-Hussain, Ya-Husain", rhythmically beating their chests, self-flagellating, carrying replicas of Husain's tomb. "Hussain laid down his life but did not compromise with a bloody-minded tyrant," says the head of the Mishra family of Sehore, another Madhya Pradesh town where a Hindu family takes out the Tazia procession. "The practice is over 100 years old for our family. We have also secured a place for `Bade Baba Sahib' in our house where hundreds of Hindus and Muslims visit during Muharram to seek Husain's intercession to cure the diseased, avert calamities and even procure children," says Dinesh Chandra Mishra, present head of the family. "Every age brings forth a new Yezid, but resistance to tyranny, as is illustrated by Husain's legendary example, is incumbent upon every man of faith", he says.
Syed Husain Ali Jaffri, who has been a visiting zakir during Muharram in Kashmir, writes that there is a Brahmin tribe by the name of Mohyals who take part in Muharram observance with great devotion and fervor. They believe that their ancestors fought with Imam Husayn at Karbala and later, avenged Imam Husayn's killing by fighting the Umayyads. There is historical evidence that Mohyals travelled back to India over the centuries via Afghanistan. A branch of Mohyals ruled in Afghanistan during the period 860-950 A.D. The Mohyals in Afghanistan are called Diwans. As a tradition, Sayyids (the descendants of Imams Hasan and Husayn) have great respect for the Mohyals of Kashmir and vice-versa.
Muslims generally abstain from any merry-making during the months of Muharram and Safar, which are the official months of mourning. The mourning ends on the day of Arba'een, or the fortieth day after Ashoora.

Hundreds of thousands of verses have been composed in a number of languages, describing the various episodes at Karbala and eulogizing Husayn.
Both Rawzeh Khwani in Iran and Iraq and Majlis and Zakiree in India and Pakistan gave rise to new standards of scholarship in the study of the religion. Thousands of books have been written.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, a new development took place in the cultural and literary circles of India. A yet-unimportant and not-so-popular form of poetry came into extensive use. This was MARTHIA, in Urdu. Marthia is a collection of sestets (stanzas of six lines each with the rhyming patters - aaaacc). It consists of full historical accounts of actual episodes at various occasions, mainly Karbala. The striking feature of this institution was the recitation, which was done with extensive imagery and acting in front of the Majlis. This created the actual scenes in the minds of the audience and thus enhanced the beauty of the poetry.
Mir Babar Ali Anees was one such poet. He was born in Lucknow, in the northern province of India, in or about the year 1805. The genius of his poetry lies in the fact that he has described the historical facts with unparalleled accuracy for a poet, and still maintained the poetical beauty and mastery of language.
( Efforts have been made in translating Anees's poetry into English. Two significant names come to mind: S.M.Amir Imam of Mamoodabad, and Professor David Matthews of the School Of African And Oriental Studies, London. Matthews has translated the famous marthiyya of Anees which begins - JAB QATA KI MUSAFAT-E-SHAB AFTAAB NE. Matthews has maintained the rhyming pattern of ababcc, in his translation. The work has been published in India by Rupa & Co., Delhi, 1994, under the title:THE BATTLE OF KARBALA.
The problem with this task is this. Anees' poetry is that of emotions, sentiments, feelings and states of mind. While it is easy to translate ideas and notions from one language to another, it is very difficult to transform feelings and state of mind from one language to another, because these are closely associated with culture and civilization which create a unique temperament for each language.)
Anees composed about 200,000 lines of verse during his life-time. In one of his marthias, he is describing the scene of the morning of Ashoora, where Husayn's son Ali is reciting the AZAN for morning prayers. The metaphor he has used is: It was a nightingale singing in the garden of Apostleship.
We give below that one stanza in its original and Matthews' translation:
Ye husn-e-sawt awr ye qir'at ye shadd-o-mad,
Haqqa ki afsah-ul-fusaha hai unhi ka jad,
Goya hai lahn-e-hazrat-e-Dawood-e-ba khirad,
Ya rab rakh is sada ko zamaane main ta abad,
Sho'bay sada main pankhariyan jaise phool main
Bulbul chahak raha hai riyaz-e-Rasool main
He reads from the Qur'an; what majesty!
His grandsire once for speaking held the prize.
Ah, may his voice remain eternally!
The strains of David, who was called the wise!
Those melodies like petals of a flower!
A nightingale chirps in the Prophet's bower!
In another marthia, Anees describes the desperate battle fought by Abbas, when both his arms have been severed and he is holding the water-skin between his teeth, warding off the arrows. The simile he has used is that of a lion holding its prey in its jaws. The true beauty of this similitude goes beyond the apparent similarity of the two situations. The lion is known as the king of the jungle. No other measly beast dares come near it. But there is one animal which can actually kill the lion. It is the wild
dog, which follows a lion in packs from a distance, until the lion has caught its prey. And then the whole pack attacks the lion trying to snatch the prey away. The lion is so proud that it does not want to let its prey go and also, because it is holding the prey in the jaws, it has lost the most effective weapon to ward off the wild bunch. The wild dogs attack the lion from all sides and eventually kill it. The simile of a proud lion holding its prey with the wounded Abbas is perfect in that he was trying to save the water-skin from the arrows of the enemy soldiers and eventually gave his life for it. Similarly, equating the enemy soldiers with a bunch of wild dogs shows implicitly, their mean, greedy and vicious nature and it also shows how contemptible they are held in Anees's view. The beauty of the simile is further enhanced when we consider the fact that the word 'Abbas ' in Arabic means `an angry lion'.

भेरा:मोहयालों की ज़मीन Bhera: Land of Mohyals

Bhera Gurdwara
Bhera is famous place of Mohyals.

Bhera is an incredible town; so too are its people. Bhera is a town that time forgot, bypassing it and burying its memories. It is a study of an ageing classy urban elegance clothed in the blues of time. Like the cities of Samarkand & Bokhara which declined due to the discovery of sea routes, Bhera too fell victim to a British Imperial order which brought a complete halt to the invaders from the west.

Cunningham identified old Bhera [on the right bank of river Jhelum] with the Palace of Sopeithes, where Alexander met his Greek forces. Later the great Chinese traveller, Fa Hien, mentions Bhera in his accounts and Babar in his memoirs. The Greek historian Arrian in his "Anabasis" narrates the palace of Sopeithes. Recent excavation were carried out by by Dr M. Salim of Taxila Institute of Asian Civilisations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. The ancient Bhera mounds are known as Barrian. Antiquities of Iron Age, Achaemenian (553-330 BC), Greek (321-184 BC) and Mauryan periods have been discovered in an excavation from the city of Bhera. The pottery of 800-600 BC has gray ware, red ware and buff ware with red painted designs. A terracotta figure of an elephant has been collected. It is said that when Alexander entered Jhelum Valley, young maidens with shell bangles were filling their pitchers with water from wells and river Jhelum.

During the 1500s it lay on a trade route as well on the route of invaders from Greece, Central Asia and Afghanistan as they thundered down from the northwest following the natural contours of the land on their horses. Alexander crossed the river Jhelum [meaning cool water in Greek] near Bhera. Babar visited Bhera in his first foray in February 1519 and mentions it in his famous Tuz-ke Babari. Sher Shah Suri built its eight gates and its famous mosque. The name "Bhera" stems from the word ‘bahu-rah’ (multiple roads) because of many roads that led to the town. The other version is that Bhera stands for a safe, protected place from the Sanskrit "bhay-hara", meaning ‘that which dispels fear.’

Bhera lies at the end of the south branch of the old North Western Railway, now Pakistan Railways, off the main Gujrat/ Lahore to Peshawar line. From its old Sikh Gurudwara minaret built in quasi-Italian style architecture, one can see [better with binoculars] to its right, the Jhelum river or whatever is left of it after the building of the Mangla Dam in 1960s. Across the Jhelum river rises the great Potohar plateau and the Salt mines of Khewra, the second largest in the world [Kracow in Poland being the largest]. The salt mines stretch from Khewra to Kalabagh on the Indus river about 186 miles long. [An electric train takes you on a tour inside these mines, which have 17 levels and produce 360,000 tons annually]. A few miles north of these salt mines are the famous Katas Raj Temples and the famous Shiv Temple, now under repair. Katas Raj complex consists of two semi-ruined temples of the Hindu Shahi period (AD 650-950). Beautifully carved, it conforms to the best in temple architecture. Katas Raj is also held sacred by Hindus for another reason. Legend says that the five Pandava brothers, heroes of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, stayed here for four out of the 14 years that they spent in exile. Further north, about another 40 miles north, is Taxila the greatest Buddhist university city

Today, Bhera nestles in the vistas of the Jhelum river, the Khewra salt mines and the famous Kinow Mandarin and Orange Groves/Orchards of the Sargodha District. About 500 years ago this area was heavily wooded and full of wild game [deer, nilgai, urial] . Emperor Jahangir used to hunt here to the tune of 500 deer in a day.

About 10 miles away lies the village of Mong known as Nicae [victory] in Greek, where Alexander the "Great" is supposed to have defeated King Porus in 326 B.C. Porus was a Vaid Mohiyal and the Mohiyals claim that Alexander was on the receiving end of the battle. Alexander’s horse Bucephalus lies buried in the nearby town of Jalalpur across on the western side of Jhelum river. It was killed in action by the son of king Porus according to the District Gazetteer of Jhelum – 1904 [published by Sang-e-Meel , Lahore 2004 ].

Bhera was an important trading outpost on the road to Kabul, and a 'taksal' (mint) during the reign of Ranjit Singh [1780-1839]. Twenty miles to its north west lies Chillianwala. Here the last big battle was fought where the Sikhs on January 13,1849 beat the British Forces, but failed to drive home their advantage [ won the battle but lost the war]. One can still visit and see the British monument where the British dead are listed.

Tilla Jogian [founded 100 B.C.], or the Hill of the Yogis [about 1000 meters high] lies about 50 kilometers North of Bhera. This is where the Kanpatha Jogis [ Jogis who pierced their earlobes] founded by Guru Gorakhnath have left behind a monastery. Tilla Jogian is mentioned in the epic love poem "Heer Ranjha" of Waris Shah, when Ranjha spent his time on the rebound, sublimating his love & passion in the spiritual world. In the quiet seclusion of Tilla Jogian, Baba Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, spent 40 days to complete the ‘chilla’, worshipping his lord. For the Burrah Sahibs or British rulers of Punjab, Tilla Jogian served as a summer resort. The deputy commissioner of Jhelum avoided the searing summers of the Punjab plains and took refuge at Tilla Jogian. In a great ironic twist of history, the area near Tilla Jogian has become the launch pad for Pakistan army missiles.

Bhera: Town & People

Bhera is also home to an equally unique collection/ set of ethnic groups/people callled Kukhran (also spelt Kukhrain) Khatris who are a regional subcaste of Punjabi Khatris The Kukhran Khatris are a group of nine clans (family names) who all originate from Bhera. Kukhrans were traditionally warrior people who bore the brunt of Muslim invasions from the northwest during the 12-16th centuries. Some converted to Sikhism during the 18th and 19th centuries. Common Kukhran names are Anand, Bhasin, Chadha, Chandok, Kohli, Sabbarwal, Sahni, Sethi and Suri many of whom had migrated from present Pakistan to India during partition. It is also home to Pirachas and Elahis and the Hayats. Perhaps the name Pirachas is a variation of the word Bherochis which was the name given to the residents of Bhera. The Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh is a Kukhran of the Kohli subcaste. He went to school at Gah a small village in Chakwal across the Jhelum river about 40 miles from Bhera.

Balraj Sahni ,perhaps one of the greatest Bollywood film actors was also from Bhera . His niece Ms.Kalapana Sahni [a professor of Russian Literature at JNU, Delhi] wrote a nostalgic travelogue in of 30 October 2000, called "The Persistence of Memory."

In her account of her trip to Bhera, she locates the Sahnian da Mohalla near the Railway Station. On the right side was the Municipality office, the Grain market was on the left of the Station. Sahnian da Mohalla was next to this area. Sheikh Hayat Akhter [now a retired Pakistan Customs officer in his 90s and living in Model Town extension ,Lahore ] corroborated this information. He is a friend of Baldev Raj Sahni and used to call him by the nickname Bally. He recalls that the Sahnis were one of the prominent families who had about 20 Marabas [1 Moraba = 25 acres] near the Railway Station and that the Sahnian da Mohalla had about 100 rooms and 10 bathrooms.

Punjabi Khatris originated in the Pothwar plateau (Rawalpindi division) and surrounding regions of Punjab, Pakistan. When Pakistan and India gained independence, most of the Khatris in what became Pakistan migrated to India. Today Khatris live in all regions of India, but are concentrated in Punjab, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.

Prominent historical figures among the Khatris are all the Sikh Gurus (belonging to the Bedi, Trehan, Bhalla and Sodhi subcastes); Raja Todar Mal (a Tandon Khatri), who as Akbar's Revenue minister codified the revenue collection system; Hari Singh Nalwa (an Uppal Khatri), the prominent general under Maharaja Ranjit Singh [ Hari Singh Nalwa was so feared among the Pathans , that his name would be taken by mothers when scaring children into submission; the Diwans Sawan Mal & Mul Raj Chopra - governors of Multan under Ranjit Singh who instituted vast improvement in agriculture.

During the Rajput Period (AD 647 to 1021) the Khatris lost political power to the emerging order of Rajputs. Unemployment caused them to switch their skills to commerce and trade. At the end of Rajput control, Khatris again reemerged as dominant. In the Muslim Period (AD 1021-1752) foreign Muslims from Central Asia, Iran or Arabia were employed in higher positions of bureaucracy and military. However, local administration and revenue collection remained in the hands of local Hindus or Muslims. Though members of other castes were also employed, most of these offices were held by Khatris. One of the offices held by Khatris was called "Qanungo", means "an expounder of law". This designation was used for hereditary registrar of landed property in a district. The founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak, a Khatri of Bedi section, started his career in one of these offices. Khatris continue to be the most educated group in modern Punjab.

The Khatris were adversely impacted by the partition [1947] of India. It resulted in the loss of the traditional home regions of the Khatris.

Although a large majority of Khatris are Hindus, some converted to Islam. The conversion started in 12th century and continued till 1947. In western districts of the Punjab (Sargodha, Mianwali, Multan, Jhang, Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Faislabad) converted Khatri traders called themselves "Khoja". Some time they are called "Khoja Sheikh".

In other districts of the Punjab Khatris use "Sheikh" as title and it is generally assumed that they belong to Muslim trading families. The Khoja Sheikhs of Chiniot, a town of district Jhang, known as Chiniotis, are one of the leading industralists of Pakistan. A group of Muslim Khatris is known as "Qanungo Sheikhs", considered a higher caste. Many Muslim Khatris still use their pre Islamic Hindu gotras (sections). Most numereous gotras are Sahgal, Chadha, Wohra, Sethi, Magun, Kapur, Duggal, Ror, Gorawala, Mehendru, Puri, Topra, Churra, Talwar.

An important citizen of Bhera (bom 25 Dec. 1850) , Bakshi Ram Dass Chibber, was a classic and a majestic Mohyal patriarch. Popularly known as Munshi Ram Dass. he was a tutor of Urdu and Persian to the ruling British. Amongst his pupils were such formidable personalities as Lord and Lady Minto. Lord and Lady Hardinge, Lady Curzon, Lady Lansdowne and Field Marshal Roberts, the Commander in-Chief of India. He used his influence to get the Mohyals listed as agriculturists. On the request of Bakshi R.D. Chibber, Russell Stracey wrote the History of the Mohyals in 1911, which till now is considered to be the most reliable account of the venerable community. Bakshi Ram Dass was a philanthropist who gave Rs. 30,000 to DA V College Lahore and Rs. 20,000 to the General Mohyal Sabha in pre-1947. The Ram Dass Block was built with his contribution in the Mohyal Ashram of Lahore. [source ].

The Mohyal clan consists of the family names BALIS, BHIMWALS, CHIBBERS, DATTS, LAUS, MOHANS and VAIDS’s. Cerain titles were bestowed on them by the Moghul and Sikh rulers for their outstanding work. These include: Bakshi, Bhai, Chaudhri, Dewan, Malik, Mehta, Rai and Raizada . Six castes which embraced Islam due to the pressures of time were : Hussaini Brahmin, Gakhar, Khakhe, Bombe, Lange and Lohana. The last two are believed to have descended from the Laus. Gakhars, the fierce fighters of Pothar, were a sect of the Hussaini Brahmins.

Some of the Mohyal clans still have the amber colored eyes and blond hair that give away their central Asian origins. Dera Bakhshian in the Rawalpindi district produced leaders for the Mohyal clan such as Bakshi Jawahar Mal Vaid, a governor in the Sikh period [ 1790-1850] , Risaldar Major Bakshi Prem Singh Vaid (1822-1892), Sardar Bahadur OBI, O.M.who in an army career of 36 years, was awarded 22 squares of land at Sangla Hill, Skeikhupura. He played a prominent part in the siege of Delhi in 1857. His son, Risaldar Major Hony. Captain Tirath Ram Vaid, 1857-1924, O.B.I., O.B:E, Sardar Bahadur presided over the Mohyal Conference held in Rawalpindi in 1919 and was the recipient of 9 squares of land which was consolidated at Sangla Hill [ next to Nankana Sahib ] and renamed Prem Kot, after his illustrious father.

Bollywood actors Sunil Dutt and his son Sanjay Dutt are also Mohyals, and so is the film director J.P. Dutta. A chieftain named Datt apparently accompanied Alexander the Great on his return journey to Macedonia, as an envoy of Raja Porus. When Alexander fell ill and died at Babylon, Datt along with his followers drifted to Arabia and settled at Harya Bunder. They apparently assisted the holy prophet Mohammed in his travails and there emerged a viable community of Datts in Arabia.

Bhera – Town architecture, crafts, products.

Intricately carved wooden doors in the streets of Bhera

Some of the carved wooden doors in Bhera are now in the Lahore Museum. The carving is both floral and geometric. The wooden balconies or "Jharokas" too are a sight to behold. The design proportion of the houses, the symmetry of the design is obvious in these photographs. The Sikh Gurudwara is a beautiful, quasi-Italian structure. From its magnificent column, one can see the hills of the Salt Range and the surrounding country side with its mustard fields and orange and kinnow mandarin orchards.

The eight gates are still there are -Lahori, Lal Gate , Multani Gate, Piranwala Gate , Chinioti Gate and were probably rebuilt around 1865 by the British . The Sher Shah Suri "Jamia Bugvia" Mosque [1540] still functions with its beautiful floral roof frescoes. A crumbling police station built in 1870 still stands as a mute witness to the ravages this town has suffered . Its famous coloured handloom cotton "Khes" [ heavy bed covers] are now defunct. Its henna is till famous and is sold to all parts of Pakistan. Also famous are its "Warian" [ dried & spiced Lentil balls ] . So too is the sweet made from "Channas/Basin" [grams] called "Patisa". Still in production are the wooden tops or Lattoos . So too are its lac coloured wooden bed posts. Its inlaid work is also famous - used in walking stick handles. Also famous are its Loquat trees which grew in abundance in Pind Dadan Khan across the Jhelum river. In the old days there was a "Kanjirian da Mela" [Festival of the Courtesans] there. The Railway Station had a circular turn around for its engines. We shall try to see if it is still there.

कंजरूर की कहानी

Kanjrur Ki Kahani: The estate of Kanjrur was founded c.1530 AD .On its bank stood the hallowed Samadhi of their great hero 'Baba Thakkar'. The spot was the venue of Diwali Mela and it was the custom for all newly wed couples to visit the Samadhi for paying their obeisance before going to their homes. Baba Thakkar was killed while fighting heroically with the Jats. Accroding to legend, one of the Datts named Midh. had married a Jat girl named Previ and this out of caste alliance led to bitter strife between the two communities. Both Baba Thakkar and Previ were killed. The headless body of Thakkar riding on the horse fell on the bank of the river where the memorial was built.
A few centuries ago, the family of Mohyals was part of a conglomeration of 52 castes, which were as follows:
(i) The seven castes of Mohyals as they exist at present, namely, Bali, Bhimwal, Chhibber, Datt, Lau, Mohan and Vaid.
(ii) Six castes which embraced Islam due to the vicissitudes of time: Hussaini Brahmin, Gakhar, Khakhe, Bombe, Lange and Lohana. The last two are believed to have descended from the Laus.
Gakhars, also referred as Gurkhas: They were a sect of the Hussaini Brahmins who traced their pedigree to Parashurama. According to Sir A. Cunningham. the father of Indian archaeology. they were the Abhisaras of the Mahabharata and the Puranas. One of their ancestors. Raja Sughar. migrated from Ajudhya to Kashmir and his great grandson, Gai Lochan. founded the Gakhar clan. They enjoyed unchallenged sovereignty over the Shivalik ranges. extending from Peshawar to Dehra Dun. For many centuries. They led a daredevil tribal life and were fleree fighters. They fought along with other Hindu rulers to repel the invasions of Muslim marauders from the north. In 761 AD when the Afghans made many onslaughts on Punjab. the Brahmin king of the area deployed a large number of Gakhars along the west bank of river Sind. to serve as seClllity force. and also built a fort near the Khyber Pass which was managed by the Gakhhar garlison. In 1009. Raja Anand Pal of Lahore not only recovered the entire terlitory which had been earlier conquered by Mahmud Ghazni but also drove back his hordes beyond Peshawar. He achieved this with the help of the Gakhars who wrought havoc on Mahmud's forces and made them flee. In this war. more than 3.000 soldiers of Mahmud were exterminated and the historian Farishta has given a harrowing acccount of the fighting. These fabled warriors ultimately succumbed to the proselytism of Shahab-ud-din Gholi and his successors and were converted to Islam. during 12th and 13th centuries. Even after their conversion. they held the Mohyals in high esteem and rewarded them with high posts and jaglrs. Prior to the Sikh administration. Gakhras enjoyed supremacy in Doaba Sind Sagar and Takhat Pari was their capital. Sultan Lashkari Khan who died in 1706 had requisitioned the services of Raizada Mool Raj Vaid from the Maharaja of Jammu and appointted him as his Counsellor and gifted him 25 villages as jaglr. Some of this property was still in possession of the Vaids of Turkwal in Tehsil Gujar Khan. at the time of the partition. In his book titled Balnama. published In Persian by Raizada Rattan Chand Bali. the fraternal relations subsisting between the Mohyals and the Gakhars. have been highlighted.